これまでの多施設共同ヒト脳MRI研究

Several brain imaging study projects have tried to find suitable biomarkers for detecting neuropsychiatric diseases. Recent multi-site mega studies have revealed well-replicated and clinically-applicable findings of subcortical structural images; ENIGMA (n = 4,568) and COCORO (n = 2,564): patients with schizophrenia have alterations in subcortical volumes compared to healthy controls (Okada et al., 2016; van Erp et al., 2016). However, the findings were partly seen in other psychiatric disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder; Hibar et al., 2018; Schmaal et al., 2017; Schmaal et al., 2016; van Erp et al., 2016). Therefore, some brain characteristics may be common in neuropsychiatric disorders.

This tendency is similar for resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) studies, DecNef Project (12 sites, n = 2,409) developed a generalized classifier for autism spectrum disorder with a high accuracy (85%; Yahata et al., 2016) which applied to other multi-disorder datasets (schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Furthermore, these characteristics can change during the course of developmental and aging trajectories (Casey et al., 2018). Therefore, we should shift from features found in case-control studies to cross-disease comparisons across the lifespan.

In the field of neurodegenerative disease, ADNI is one of the multi-site neuroimaging and biomarker studies for Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (Mueller et al., 2005; Weiner et al., 2015). The Japanese ADNI (J-ADNI) conducted a multi-site neuroimaging study on cognitively normal elderly patients, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer’s disease (n = 537), which attempted to harmonize the protocol and procedures with ADNI (Iwatsubo et al., 2018; Beheshti et al., 2017). Also, the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI; Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative, 2011) and the Japanese (J-) PPMI team has started to collaborate for REM sleep behavioral disorder, a prodromal state to Parkinson’s disease (Mukai & Murata, 2017). In the BMB HBM project, Group 1-1S launched PADNI.


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